Monthly Archives: September 2021

History of Mortal Kombat 3

Making of Mortal Kombat 3 Documentary

Mortal Kombat 3 (MK3) was released on July 11, 1996 and is the third and final installment in the Mortal Kombat series. It was developed by Midway Games and published by Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment.

The game was initially released for arcades, with ports to the PlayStation, Sega Saturn, and the PC. The Sega Saturn port was released first in North America on October 30, 1996. The Sega Saturn version of MK3 is infamous for not including Kenshi’s fighting stance; first-time players may wonder who the first swordsman is. A Mac OS X version of the game was released in the mid-2000s for Mac OS 9, Mac OS X 10.1, and Mac OS X 10.4. A new version of the game, based on the PlayStation port, was also released on September 19, 2004 for Microsoft Windows. Additional versions have been released for the Sega Dreamcast and Nintendo GameCube using emulated versions of the arcade original. There are multiple versions of Mortal Kombat 3 being sold online on various websites that are physically different from each other.

The game was originally developed by Midway and released in arcades during the year 1996. It was one of the first fighting games to use digitized 3D graphics, and was an instant success among players and critics alike. By 1997, it had been ported to all home consoles from the arcade version. In 1997, a port for the Sega Saturn was released in Japan only. The port was developed by DMA Design and published by Sega, with Midway publishing the North American version. A year later, the PlayStation port of the game was released in North America and Europe.

In 2001, Midway released a new version of MK3 for Windows-based PCs which featured several gameplay enhancements such as a redesigned user interface and support for new 3D graphics cards. This version also includes an extra character, thus extending the total number of playable characters to nine (9). In 2002, a port of the MK3 for the Dreamcast was released under the Sega Classics name. In 2004, a version of MK3 was developed by Yuke’s for a then unreleased system that would become the Xbox and PlayStation 2. This version of the game featured several new additions to the gameplay such as a new two player series mode and a new look to many sprites and backgrounds from all three versions of MK3.

The game itself is an update of the first two games in the Mortal Kombat series, Mortal Kombat and Mortal Kombat II . All characters from both games are included. Many characters were also altered. The new gameplay mechanics were designed to make it easier to fight against computer-controlled opponents, thus making MK3 on hard mode easier than it was on the first two games on hard mode, but harder than it was on easy mode. The result of this design decision has been a matter of controversy among the players. The game also includes digitized footage featuring most characters as well as newly filmed live action footage with professional actors. Some of the actors included in the game were: Robin Shou (Liu Kang and Kung Lao), Talisa Soto (Kitana and Mileena), Elizabeth Malecki (Sonya and Sindel), and Christopher Lambert (Raiden and Sub-Zero). Another feature of the game is the inclusion of a two-player Battle Mode, which was absent from “Mortal Kombat II”.

The PlayStation port is largely based on the arcade version of MK3. It lacks the extra characters present in other versions, but includes new ones, such as Noob Saibot, Shinnok and Meat. This version also includes the all new “Kombat Tomb”, which replaces The Pit II from MK2. Some graphical glitches in the arcade version have been removed from this port, such as Tanya having a portion of her hair going through the red bar in her hair. Other graphical glitches have been added, such as Sub-Zero’s gloves disappearing when performing his ice beam and Scorpion’s veiled face when performing his tongue bite.

The Sega Saturn version is not much different from the PlayStation port. The graphics, however, are based on that of the arcade version rather than the PlayStation ports. The game was released only in Japan.

The game for the Gameboy Color features Nintendo-style 2D graphics and no digitized voice. The game was developed by Probe Entertainment, which did not port any other title to the system.

The game was also released for the Sega Dreamcast in 2001 under the name “Mortal Kombat Trilogy” (which is actually a combination of MK3 and MKII). It features enhanced graphics and added special effects like rain and sparks, as well as a brand new soundtrack. It also includes the two-player series and the “Kombat Tomb”. The port was developed by Attention to Detail, which created other ports for Midway games such as “Robotron X” and “San Francisco Rush 2049”. It was published by Crave Entertainment. This port is largely based on the PlayStation version of MK3 and it contains most of the new gameplay elements from that version, including Meat and Noob Saibot. The portal in which you fight Shinnok is apparently a large, red mask. It has been rumored that the Kombat Tomb in this port includes a cheat code to unlock Blaze as a playable character, but it hasn’t been proven.

The Windows version is based on the PlayStation port and it contains many of the gameplay changes from that version as well as a completely new user interface (no longer in Win32 and several other functions that were not ported to the console versions). The cutscenes were altered and the music was remastered to include new tracks. Each character has their own individual intro sequence. This port also includes an extra character, Noob Saibot.

There have been a number of ports of the game from the Dreamcast version to other consoles. In Japan, a Gamecube port was released in 2003. It also featured updated graphics and new mini-games where players can play as various characters from the series such as Kintaro or Kobra.[1] A port for Xbox by Yuke’s Entertainment was released along with “Mortal Kombat Trilogy” in Japan on December 9, 2004 under the Sega Classics name. A PS2 port was also released under the same title on February 4, 2005. The newest port of Mortal Kombat 3 was developed by Other Ocean Interactive for the Wii. This version of the game was released on February 9, 2007. A new mini-game called “Motor Kombat” lets players use vehicles to fight each other. It also supports the Classic Controller.

Reception Edit

The game received positive reviews, with critics praising some elements of the gameplay and graphics but were largely critical of some aspects including the difficulty level. A review aggregated from GameRankings gave MK3 an overall rating of 76%. The arcade version has achieved an average score of 91% at The most recent version of the game, MK3 on the Dreamcast, has achieved an average of 86% at

IGN’s Levi Buchanan commented that “MK3 is all about gameplay”, stating that it is very different form the first two Mortal Kombat titles. He claimed that it is more like a “fighting game”, but still retains the elements of a beat ’em up game like its predecessors. However, he commented on certain gameplay aspects stating that it was “impossible to knock them away, even with your most powerful attacks. This is a risky move when it comes to the more powerful characters, and though the game has some basic level design and controls, it’s hard to see how this will translate to a 3D environment.” GameSpot’s Craig Harris agreed saying that “the basic combat of MK3 is basically unchanged from its predecessors, but still offers plenty of challenge and variety”.

However, several differences were noticed. Directly attacked players could be juggled into the air for an easy victory. The health bar is gone making it easier for players with speed and strength to quickly kill their opponents if they can get in close range. Opponents no longer kick out at you while blocking or performing any type of attack. While this may make it harder to perform combos, it encourages the player to move around rather stay in one spot, making fights more exciting. The Combo system was also changed where each character has combo’s that are completely unique to them. The fighting system is more complex than the previous game, allowing players to execute air combos and juggle enemies.

The game was lauded for its graphics and sound.[8] Other critics noted that the game has an improvement over its predecessors by adding new elements such as combo attacks, no more health bars and multiple fighting styles for each character. The Genesis version was criticized for having inferior sound effects compared to the Sega CD versions of MK1 and MK2.

How to Become an Amazon Affiliate

If you’re a person who is looking for a way to make money online, Amazon can give you a great opportunity. The website gives marketers huge opportunities to sell items on their platform and earn commission as an Amazon Affiliate. There is nothing more fulfilling than finally earning enough income from your hard work, and it is empowering as well. You can also help others by giving them advice about how to make the most of selling products on Amazon both now and in the future.

What Is Amazon?

Amazon is a popular American e-commerce company that aims to provide customers with more convenient shopping experience. It is a huge online retailer which provides a great online platform for people to buy and sell goods. The site has many different avenues where people can purchase products ranging from electronics to clothing and books. Many of its products are sold exclusively through Amazon, so it is the only website where they can be found. It has a large number of products, making it one of the most popular websites on the internet. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to become an Amazon affiliate.

What Is an Amazon Affiliate?

Amazon affiliates are website owners and bloggers who have signed up to receive commission from Amazon for advertising their products. Anytime someone purchases a product from Amazon after clicking a link that you have provided them, you can earn a commission from that sale. It is an excellent way to monetize your blog or website and also builds trust with your website visitors. Often times affiliate products will be listed on your website and your readers will be able to find them easily. You can offer them an added convenience by providing an affiliate link that allows them to purchase the item online. Besides Amazon, you can earn from other affiliate programs. One of the most popular ones is the ClickBank affiliate program. You can learn how to earn money with ClickBank. If you are on social media, there are also many other ways how to monetize your social media followers.

Amazon Affiliate Programs

There are many different affiliate programs through Amazon, and it is an extremely beneficial way to get started earning money online. However, it is important that you know what products are most profitable so you can branch out to others if necessary. When starting out, it is best to look for products that are of high demand or that you personally like. There are many choices that can be marketed on Amazon, but if you do not know the best products to sell, your time may be wasted. When creating your website, it is recommended that you use WordPress because this software will allow you to sell product through the website without compromising or restricting its appeal.

Benefits of Becoming an Amazon Affiliate

Amazon Affiliates make an excellent source for income online. Because Amazon offers numerous products that you can market, there are endless possibilities for what you can offer your customers. Many affiliate programs are geared towards earning commission on one particular product, but Amazon gives its affiliates the opportunity to choose from many different products. When choosing a product for an affiliate to sell, it is best to choose one that offers a higher profit. If you are not making much money or are simply looking for extra income, it is best to stick with the best selling items because they will make you more money.

Importance of a Quick Loading Landing Page

When selling on Amazon, it is important that your website or landing page loads quickly and that the site is easy to navigate. Amazon does not allow affiliates to create a website with slow loading times or difficult navigation. Each product you sell must be easy for customers to find and purchase. You can either build your own web site with your own hosting and a domain name, or create an Amazon affiliate landing page at EZBiolink, which is highly optimized for simplicity, SEO, speed and compatibility with the Amazon affiliate program. If you do not have the best products or if they are hard for customers to find, they may simply go elsewhere and purchase from another company. Always keep your customers in mind because they are the reason why you are making money.

What Products to Offer to Increase Your Profits

Amazon has a lot of products that you can offer to people, but there are a few that will make you more money. Selling these products will help you earn the highest commission and grow your affiliate business quickly. Since Amazon is geared towards making a fast profit, it is best to choose a product that has been proven to succeed. The best way to know which products are most profitable is by looking at what other companies have been successful with on Amazon.

Using Amazon Affiliate Programs

  1. You can start using Amazon affiliate programs as soon as your website is up and running. Simply find a product that you want to sell on Amazon and then look at other websites that have been successful with it. When you find a product that you would like to use as an example, go ahead an set up your account. You will need to upload your pictures, information about the product and list the price of the item before setting it up for commission. Remember to use a link from your site so that people can easily make a purchase.
  2. Once you have set up your account, you will need to listen for an email from Amazon telling you that your website is approved. Once this occurs, you will have the option of choosing a category for the product you are going to offer. If it is a product that has already been eligible to sell on Amazon, then it is best that you choose a different category instead. This way, you will have a greater chance of earning a higher commission.
  3. Once you have chosen your category, you can begin to create your website for marketing purposes. Make sure that the information you provide is extensive and that it contains pictures of the product that people can see. Customers want to know as much as they can about the product before purchasing it, so be sure to use plenty of pictures throughout your website. Once your website is set up and ready for selling, there are multiple ways that you can advertise it on Amazon.

How Can One Earn Money With Amazon Affiliate Programs?

There are many avenues through which you can earn money with Amazon affiliate programs. You can sell the same product again and again to your members, you can provide coupons for your members or you can help them find other items they might be interested in purchasing. Once you have an established following of customers, it is possible that they will become regular customers that will purchase from you because they know that they can get what they want easily. By focusing your attention on a few products, you can start to make a comfortable income through Amazon affiliate programs.

3 Additional Ways You Earn with Amazon Affiliate Program?

  1. You can earn money from Amazon affiliate programs is by offering coupons. Once you have decided on the product that you want to sell, you can simply provide promotional codes that customers can use to earn a discount on their purchase. This is a great way to offer some added incentives to your customers and also increase your profit margin. Members will appreciate your efforts to help them save money on their purchases.
  2. Another way you can earn money through Amazon affiliate programs is by marketing other products that you think people may want to buy. This way, you are helping your customers find even more items that they can purchase with their own money. If your customers want to purchase products that are related to the products you are marketing, then they can do so through Amazon. By offering articles about these products, you can help people make informed decisions about what they should purchase.
  3. The last way you can earn money through Amazon affiliate programs is by helping your customers find other products they might be interested in. If your customers are satisfied with your product, then they may want to purchase another item that will be related to your product. When you offer helpful articles about other possible products, you can help people save time and money when they purchase.

The Importance of a Good Landing Page as an Amazon Affiliate

Amazon does not allow direct linking to their products from social media profiles or articles. In order to avoid getting banned from the Amazon associate program, you need to create a landing page, where you will host all of your amazon affiliate links. If you are technical and have time to learn how to create a web site, buy a hosting package and a domain name – great. If you want to get up an running in 5 minutes, with no previous knowledge, here is a full guide on how to create an Amazon Affiliate landing page with EZBiolink.

Sell the Right Products

Sellers of products on Amazon are not alone in wanting to turn a profit. To really make money through Amazon affiliate programs, you will need to search far and wide for items that are likely to be sold well. If your website is attractive enough for people to come back, they are more likely to purchase from you again. They will also be more likely to return the next time you offer a product that they want because it was easy for them to find.

You can promote Amazon products on TikTok, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube and other social media platforms.

If you are a social media influencer, read about the 5 things highly successful social media influencers do to earn a living on social media.

And if you are ready to become an Amazon associate, here is a full guide about how to become an Amazon associate.

Benefits of a Contactless Online Menu

At a glance, contactless point-of-sale (POS) systems seem like a dream come true for any business owner. Not only do they provide a higher profit margin than traditional cash registers, but they also give customers the ability to purchase menu items online. That’s why it should come as no surprise that many restaurants are looking into contactless POS systems in order to increase their revenue and help keep their customers happy.

But is a contactless system the right choice for your restaurant? Despite the many perks associated with contactless technology, there are some potential disadvantages that you need to be aware of before making a decision.

Is Contactless Really Better?

Although contactless POS systems cost more than traditional registers, they offer several key advantages that can make them more beneficial for your restaurant. More on that in the original article about the benefits of a contactless menu for your restaurant. For starters, an online menu linked to a POS system can increase sales. Because customers will no longer have to order food while dining, they’ll be able to browse your website and mark their favorites before ordering. This means that the number of food orders per day will increase, which is a major contributing factor when it comes to increasing revenue.

Moreover, since you’ll be able to track your customers’ food consumption through online ordering, you won’t have to worry about your fixed profit margins. Instead of earning a set amount when a customer buys food for their table, online ordering will allow the system to calculate the price per item and let you know how much money you’ll make based on the amount of food that was ordered. This makes it easier for your staff to plan menus and produce accurate cost calculations for customers interested in making additional reservations. In cases where customers order online, this is especially important as it can help boost your revenue.

Having a contactless menu normally comes with an online component and it could help you in moving your restaurant online and could be one of the best ways how to promote your restaurant online.

Contactless POS systems also allow you to sell menu items online. When customers order their food online, the POS system can automatically mark the items as sold, and you won’t have to worry about losing out on business because of slow sales or having to manually mark inventory.

Ready to create a web site for your food truck? Start your 7-day trial with MenuStripe

Contactless is Much Faster

As far as efficiency is concerned, contactless POS systems also come with a number of benefits. Most traditional cash registers take several minutes to process sales and close out a transaction. By eliminating the need for cashiers to swipe credit cards or hand over receipts, contactless technology allows payments to be processed more quickly. Customers can complete their purchases and leave in seconds flat without dealing with endless lines at the register.

Contactless technology also makes it easier for you to work with international markets. While your staff may have to learn the ins and outs of a foreign money system in order to accept foreign currency, your POS terminal can process these transactions without them even needing to enter the information into your system. If the money and credit card are already loaded onto the magnetic stripe of the card, all you’ll need is a customer’s passport (or other ID) in order to complete payment.

Is Contactless Technology Right For You?

Contactless POS systems are ideal for restaurants that want to take advantage of online ordering and selling menu items without having their profit margins suffer. However, this brings us to our next question…

Is contactless technology really the right choice for your restaurant? If you answered “yes” to one or more of the questions above, contactless POS systems may be a great fit for your business. But if not, there are several other options available to you.

Contactless Brings You Free Traffic from Google and Yelp

In order to increase your profit, it is a good idea to add contactless menu URL on Google and Yelp. This will drive more traffic to your restaurant! Google Maps is a great source of free restaurant traffic. Besides Google Maps, there are at least other 10 sources of free customer traffic for your food business. People search for food on Google every day. By adding a contactless menu to a Google Map, Yelp or Google My Business, people will be able to see what’s on your menu and order online directly from your Google listing. The good thing about Yelp is that it is more of a trusted source for customers.

With MenuStripe, you can easily create an online menu and start taking orders in less than an hour.

History of El Salvador

History of El Salvador

History of El Salvador or any history may be written by the victors, but with all the news coverage these days about conflict in El Salvador and other countries, it’s easy to forget how recent this part of Central America’s history really is. The country has a turbulent past and hasn’t yet found stability since independence from Spain. Fortunately, visitors can still find pockets of tranquility in its colonial cities and villages. Here, you’ll find a mix of modernity and old-world charm.

El Salvador has many attractions for visitors including its cocktail bars and historical sites such as Masaya Volcano National Park which was created when lava poured out for over three decades until it finally cooled off in 1994 at the height of Guatemala’s civil war. There are also magnificent pre-Colombian ruins of pyramids, temples and ceremonial centers, many of which are still being excavated. The majestic Quetzaltepeque Archaeological Site is one of the most important Mayan civilization centers in Central America.

El Salvador has a rich culinary heritage that blends indigenous traditions with Spanish cuisine. A number of dishes, such as chicken in cream sauce with vegetables, are prepared the same way they were four centuries ago. One popular dish is tamales made from corn dough filled with meat or cheese and wrapped in leaves for cooking. Another is sopa de res (beef soup), which dates back to the 16th century when it was served to emperors and kings visiting the country. El Salvador’s beef is considered best in Central America with its variety of cattle breeds.

On a hot day, the perfect entertainment might include a castañada or a colorful street parade which often includes clowns, music and dancers. Local bands play in busy bars where you can hear live Latin rock from El Salvador and elsewhere.

In general, El Salvador has a good economy with job opportunities for everyone from doctors to waiters, especially in tourist areas such as San Miguel. The unemployment rate is 3.9 percent for both men and women at 2011 rates per the International Labor Organization (ILO). The El Salvadorian GDP growth rate per the International Monetary Fund was 2 percent per annum at 2012 rates.

El Salvador has enjoyed relative stability since its civil war ended in 1992. Poverty levels are high, but political stability has allowed the country to grow economically in recent years.

The language in El Salvador is Spanish. The official language is Spanish, and it is spoken by approximately 95 percent of the population. However, indigenous dialects are still spoken in rural areas, particularly San Miguel and Santa Ana. Languages spoken by other ethnic groups include Pochutec (Mayan) and Garifuna (Afro-Caribbean). The government works hard to promote the use of Spanish in all official functions including education, health care and business. The money used in El Salvador is the Cordoba, named for Christopher Columbus.

El Salvador has an interesting set of holidays this year, including Independence Day on September 15 which commemorates the anniversary of the signing of the emancipation decree in 1811. On October 12 is The Discovery of America, which was first celebrated 10 years after Columbus’s landing in the Americas. This historic holiday has become a national holiday that celebrates cultural identity and features music and dance. Another big day is June 10, which marks Heroes’ Day (Dia de los Heroes) and honors those who died fighting for freedom against Spanish rule over 400 years ago. Every Sunday, El Salvador celebrates its patron saint, Our Lady of Aparecida (La Santisima Virgen de Aparecida), with special events in churches throughout the country.

The national flag is readily identified by its five horizontal stripes representing the colors blue, white, red, yellow and green. The blue is indented with a white ring to symbolize the Pacific Ocean. The coat of arms features a chained crown above triple pineapples with golden tassels on either side of the crown at the top right corner. The tassels display symbols that celebrate El Salvador’s indigenous heritage including an alligator for San Miguel and limpias (flowers) that signify Santa Ana. At the bottom right of the coat of arms is a banner that is inscribed with the words “Order and Liberty” which were used during colonial times after independence from Spain.

El Salvador has three principal cities: San Salvador is the largest city and its capital, Santa Ana is also important and so too is La Union. San Miguel, located in western El Salvador, has been called the most beautiful city in Central America because of its central role in developing El Salvador’s economy and reputation as a center of industry and commerce with a pleasant climate year-round. It was founded by Spaniards in 1525 on an expansive plain that also served as a breeding ground for cattle. In addition to its natural beauty, this colonial city is filled with historic sites whose magnificent architecture still stands despite the quakes and tremors it has endured.

The patron saint of El Salvador, La Negrita, was originally a statue that sits in the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace in San Miguel with a cross in her right hand and a rosary in her left. She is dressed in a gold crown and robe and is considered the mother of all Salvadorans. The Virgin’s feast day usually falls on December 12 but it’s celebrated on September 8 because she appeared to one Antonia Lopez, mother of Jose Simeon Lopez, on the 8th day of the month about 200 years ago.

The El Salvador flag that is used on official occasions is red, white and blue with the coat of arms in the upper left corner. The current flag took its roots from the flag of independent San Salvador that was first used after independence from Spain in 1821. The colors represent the different groups that have contributed to El Salvador’s prosperity over the years. The flag was changed after a new constitution was signed in January 1831 so this year marks 300 years since it took effect.

History of the French Revolution

History of French Revolution by Discovery YouTube

The French Revolution was the most important event in French history that started on July 14, 1789, and lasted until September 21, 1799. The revolution overthrew the French monarchy and brought on a period of prolonged conflict, first through war with England and later through wars with other European powers. France owes its place as a world power largely to this great period of change. The events during the French Revolution transformed France from an absolute monarchy into a democracy which is now called “the first modern democracy.
The French Revolution was a pivotal event in the history of Europe. It changed the lives of millions of French people, abolished feudalism, and led to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Revolution ended monarchy in France and established a republic.

The causes of the Revolution were many, but most historians agree on several major factors: The Estates-General became an assembly representing the whole nation after 250 years of being an assembly only for the elite. – The economic crisis which followed was not just restricted to France, but was part of a larger European economic crisis that followed the Seven Years War. – The Great Fear happened in 1789, with peasants revolting against what they believed were unfair taxes by their landlords. – The king surrounded himself with too many advisers who had no power. – There was a lack of clearly defined Revolutionary ideology that could unite the nation.

The French Revolution is an example of an ideological driving force that radicalizes the masses, bringing them to take action. The “dynamism” of the masses causes more extreme actions after time, as the more extreme actions are taken, the less radical appear to be.

The war of conquests which ended feudalism in France was no exception. After the battle of Valmy, revolutionary armies went on to conquer most of Europe under Napoleon Bonaparte’s leadership between 1796 and 1815.

By 1793, the French revolution had progressed to the point of radicalizing many of its participants. The Jacobin faction had taken control of the government. As a result, King Louis XVI was brought to trial on charges of treason in late 1792, and was executed on January 21, 1793.

The new French constitution of 1793 made France a constitutional monarchy with a Legislative Assembly making up the legislature for France’s first republic. The anti-royalist Jacobin leader, Maximilien Robespierre then initiated the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), during which thousands were killed, most by guillotine in Paris, including members of the former nobility who supported an absolute monarchy.

During the Reign of Terror, thousands were executed by guillotine and tens of thousands were imprisoned and sent to the most backward and remote areas of France. Many members of the rich aristocracy who supported an absolute monarchy were executed during the Reign of Terror.

The Jacobin faction tried to make its rule permanent, but was eventually overthrown in 1794 after a successful uprising against them in Paris. The French Directory (1795–1799) was a government formed by five directors: Robespierre, Saint-Just, Couthon, Cambon and Boissy d’Anglas. All members were aimed at eliminating dissent and securing punishment for the counterrevolutionaries.

The Directory soon came under attack from the right. The Catholic Church was declared illegal and those who objected to this were arrested and executed. Robespierre is known as “the most zealous and enthusiastic defender of the religion of the ancient regime, with his Jacobin cult and his worship of virtue.”

There was a fratricidal war between the people of Paris and the rural areas over who hated the most: “”Parisians vs. country folk”” (guerre de pays). (See also: Siege of Paris (October 1795) ). After three months fighting, France had been set on an irreversible course towards dictatorship.

In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup d’état and installed himself as first consul. He initiated a series of reforms including lower taxes and he had an exchange of ambassadors with the United States. The Treaty of Amiens (1802) temporarily ended hostilities between France and the United Kingdom. Napoleon was named emperor in 1804 under the “legal” pretext that Napoleon I was not covered by the constitutional three-term limit. Later, he crowned himself Emperor on December 2, 1804 at Notre Dame de Paris and declared Joseph Bonaparte his heir.

The French Empire was now fully legal under the French Republic. Napoleon began to modernize the country. He established a merit-based education system, nationalized all land, ended feudalism, updated the tax code, expanded the government and separated church and state. He also built a new Paris with streets and monuments designed by architects he personally selected including Jacques-Ignace Hittorff and Jean Chalgrin.

The reign of Napoleon I was considered to be one of France’s most important times in history because it brought about almost 200 years of peace after the end of “ancien régime”. The French period became known as the “Napoleonic Age”.

The Congress of Vienna took place in 1814, after Napoleon’s defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. The primary concerns were to restore political stability in Europe that had been disturbed by Napoleon’s invasion of Russia, post-revolutionary unrest that occurred throughout Europe, the Napoleonic Wars, and to safeguard the interests of the European monarchs against possible future claims through heirs. The Congress also included talks on compensation for France. This resulted in a compromise between Prussia and Austria over conflicting territorial claims; each agreed to cede one third of its pre-war possessions.

The Congress of Vienna was also responsible for the redrawing of Europe’s political map. The number of German states was reduced to 39, with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, and all remaining lands were given to the German Confederation. The Austrian Netherlands and Prince-Bishopric of Liège were annexed by Prussia. Switzerland became a confederation. The Duchy of Warsaw, which had been created by Napoleon, was abolished and divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria.

From 1815 to 1848 European countries engaged themselves in wars that started in France with the fall of Napoleon I. The monarchies defeated Napoleon and the Church, which had sided with him ever since the French Civil War. The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII signed during the first year of his reign where he made a deal with the Pope to return to pre-1789 religion in France. This included having a Catholic bishop appointed as the head of every French regional division along with Catholicism being taught in schools.

After his defeat by Prussia, Austria, Russia and Great Britain at Waterloo, Napoleon found himself condemned to exile on Saint Helena Island in July 1815, which was controlled by Great Britain.