History of El Salvador or any history may be written by the victors, but with all the news coverage these days about conflict in El Salvador and other countries, it’s easy to forget how recent this part of Central America’s history really is. The country has a turbulent past and hasn’t yet found stability since independence from Spain. Fortunately, visitors can still find pockets of tranquility in its colonial cities and villages. Here, you’ll find a mix of modernity and old-world charm.
El Salvador has many attractions for visitors including its cocktail bars and historical sites such as Masaya Volcano National Park which was created when lava poured out for over three decades until it finally cooled off in 1994 at the height of Guatemala’s civil war. There are also magnificent pre-Colombian ruins of pyramids, temples and ceremonial centers, many of which are still being excavated. The majestic Quetzaltepeque Archaeological Site is one of the most important Mayan civilization centers in Central America.
El Salvador has a rich culinary heritage that blends indigenous traditions with Spanish cuisine. A number of dishes, such as chicken in cream sauce with vegetables, are prepared the same way they were four centuries ago. One popular dish is tamales made from corn dough filled with meat or cheese and wrapped in leaves for cooking. Another is sopa de res (beef soup), which dates back to the 16th century when it was served to emperors and kings visiting the country. El Salvador’s beef is considered best in Central America with its variety of cattle breeds.
On a hot day, the perfect entertainment might include a castañada or a colorful street parade which often includes clowns, music and dancers. Local bands play in busy bars where you can hear live Latin rock from El Salvador and elsewhere.
In general, El Salvador has a good economy with job opportunities for everyone from doctors to waiters, especially in tourist areas such as San Miguel. The unemployment rate is 3.9 percent for both men and women at 2011 rates per the International Labor Organization (ILO). The El Salvadorian GDP growth rate per the International Monetary Fund was 2 percent per annum at 2012 rates.
El Salvador has enjoyed relative stability since its civil war ended in 1992. Poverty levels are high, but political stability has allowed the country to grow economically in recent years.
The language in El Salvador is Spanish. The official language is Spanish, and it is spoken by approximately 95 percent of the population. However, indigenous dialects are still spoken in rural areas, particularly San Miguel and Santa Ana. Languages spoken by other ethnic groups include Pochutec (Mayan) and Garifuna (Afro-Caribbean). The government works hard to promote the use of Spanish in all official functions including education, health care and business. The money used in El Salvador is the Cordoba, named for Christopher Columbus.
El Salvador has an interesting set of holidays this year, including Independence Day on September 15 which commemorates the anniversary of the signing of the emancipation decree in 1811. On October 12 is The Discovery of America, which was first celebrated 10 years after Columbus’s landing in the Americas. This historic holiday has become a national holiday that celebrates cultural identity and features music and dance. Another big day is June 10, which marks Heroes’ Day (Dia de los Heroes) and honors those who died fighting for freedom against Spanish rule over 400 years ago. Every Sunday, El Salvador celebrates its patron saint, Our Lady of Aparecida (La Santisima Virgen de Aparecida), with special events in churches throughout the country.
The national flag is readily identified by its five horizontal stripes representing the colors blue, white, red, yellow and green. The blue is indented with a white ring to symbolize the Pacific Ocean. The coat of arms features a chained crown above triple pineapples with golden tassels on either side of the crown at the top right corner. The tassels display symbols that celebrate El Salvador’s indigenous heritage including an alligator for San Miguel and limpias (flowers) that signify Santa Ana. At the bottom right of the coat of arms is a banner that is inscribed with the words “Order and Liberty” which were used during colonial times after independence from Spain.
El Salvador has three principal cities: San Salvador is the largest city and its capital, Santa Ana is also important and so too is La Union. San Miguel, located in western El Salvador, has been called the most beautiful city in Central America because of its central role in developing El Salvador’s economy and reputation as a center of industry and commerce with a pleasant climate year-round. It was founded by Spaniards in 1525 on an expansive plain that also served as a breeding ground for cattle. In addition to its natural beauty, this colonial city is filled with historic sites whose magnificent architecture still stands despite the quakes and tremors it has endured.
The patron saint of El Salvador, La Negrita, was originally a statue that sits in the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace in San Miguel with a cross in her right hand and a rosary in her left. She is dressed in a gold crown and robe and is considered the mother of all Salvadorans. The Virgin’s feast day usually falls on December 12 but it’s celebrated on September 8 because she appeared to one Antonia Lopez, mother of Jose Simeon Lopez, on the 8th day of the month about 200 years ago.
The El Salvador flag that is used on official occasions is red, white and blue with the coat of arms in the upper left corner. The current flag took its roots from the flag of independent San Salvador that was first used after independence from Spain in 1821. The colors represent the different groups that have contributed to El Salvador’s prosperity over the years. The flag was changed after a new constitution was signed in January 1831 so this year marks 300 years since it took effect.
The French Revolution was the most important event in French history that started on July 14, 1789, and lasted until September 21, 1799. The revolution overthrew the French monarchy and brought on a period of prolonged conflict, first through war with England and later through wars with other European powers. France owes its place as a world power largely to this great period of change. The events during the French Revolution transformed France from an absolute monarchy into a democracy which is now called “the first modern democracy. The French Revolution was a pivotal event in the history of Europe. It changed the lives of millions of French people, abolished feudalism, and led to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Revolution ended monarchy in France and established a republic.
The causes of the Revolution were many, but most historians agree on several major factors: The Estates-General became an assembly representing the whole nation after 250 years of being an assembly only for the elite. – The economic crisis which followed was not just restricted to France, but was part of a larger European economic crisis that followed the Seven Years War. – The Great Fear happened in 1789, with peasants revolting against what they believed were unfair taxes by their landlords. – The king surrounded himself with too many advisers who had no power. – There was a lack of clearly defined Revolutionary ideology that could unite the nation.
The French Revolution is an example of an ideological driving force that radicalizes the masses, bringing them to take action. The “dynamism” of the masses causes more extreme actions after time, as the more extreme actions are taken, the less radical appear to be.
The war of conquests which ended feudalism in France was no exception. After the battle of Valmy, revolutionary armies went on to conquer most of Europe under Napoleon Bonaparte’s leadership between 1796 and 1815.
By 1793, the French revolution had progressed to the point of radicalizing many of its participants. The Jacobin faction had taken control of the government. As a result, King Louis XVI was brought to trial on charges of treason in late 1792, and was executed on January 21, 1793.
The new French constitution of 1793 made France a constitutional monarchy with a Legislative Assembly making up the legislature for France’s first republic. The anti-royalist Jacobin leader, Maximilien Robespierre then initiated the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), during which thousands were killed, most by guillotine in Paris, including members of the former nobility who supported an absolute monarchy.
During the Reign of Terror, thousands were executed by guillotine and tens of thousands were imprisoned and sent to the most backward and remote areas of France. Many members of the rich aristocracy who supported an absolute monarchy were executed during the Reign of Terror.
The Jacobin faction tried to make its rule permanent, but was eventually overthrown in 1794 after a successful uprising against them in Paris. The French Directory (1795–1799) was a government formed by five directors: Robespierre, Saint-Just, Couthon, Cambon and Boissy d’Anglas. All members were aimed at eliminating dissent and securing punishment for the counterrevolutionaries.
The Directory soon came under attack from the right. The Catholic Church was declared illegal and those who objected to this were arrested and executed. Robespierre is known as “the most zealous and enthusiastic defender of the religion of the ancient regime, with his Jacobin cult and his worship of virtue.”
There was a fratricidal war between the people of Paris and the rural areas over who hated the most: “”Parisians vs. country folk”” (guerre de pays). (See also: Siege of Paris (October 1795) ). After three months fighting, France had been set on an irreversible course towards dictatorship.
In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup d’état and installed himself as first consul. He initiated a series of reforms including lower taxes and he had an exchange of ambassadors with the United States. The Treaty of Amiens (1802) temporarily ended hostilities between France and the United Kingdom. Napoleon was named emperor in 1804 under the “legal” pretext that Napoleon I was not covered by the constitutional three-term limit. Later, he crowned himself Emperor on December 2, 1804 at Notre Dame de Paris and declared Joseph Bonaparte his heir.
The French Empire was now fully legal under the French Republic. Napoleon began to modernize the country. He established a merit-based education system, nationalized all land, ended feudalism, updated the tax code, expanded the government and separated church and state. He also built a new Paris with streets and monuments designed by architects he personally selected including Jacques-Ignace Hittorff and Jean Chalgrin.
The reign of Napoleon I was considered to be one of France’s most important times in history because it brought about almost 200 years of peace after the end of “ancien régime”. The French period became known as the “Napoleonic Age”.
The Congress of Vienna took place in 1814, after Napoleon’s defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. The primary concerns were to restore political stability in Europe that had been disturbed by Napoleon’s invasion of Russia, post-revolutionary unrest that occurred throughout Europe, the Napoleonic Wars, and to safeguard the interests of the European monarchs against possible future claims through heirs. The Congress also included talks on compensation for France. This resulted in a compromise between Prussia and Austria over conflicting territorial claims; each agreed to cede one third of its pre-war possessions.
The Congress of Vienna was also responsible for the redrawing of Europe’s political map. The number of German states was reduced to 39, with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, and all remaining lands were given to the German Confederation. The Austrian Netherlands and Prince-Bishopric of Liège were annexed by Prussia. Switzerland became a confederation. The Duchy of Warsaw, which had been created by Napoleon, was abolished and divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria.
From 1815 to 1848 European countries engaged themselves in wars that started in France with the fall of Napoleon I. The monarchies defeated Napoleon and the Church, which had sided with him ever since the French Civil War. The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII signed during the first year of his reign where he made a deal with the Pope to return to pre-1789 religion in France. This included having a Catholic bishop appointed as the head of every French regional division along with Catholicism being taught in schools.
After his defeat by Prussia, Austria, Russia and Great Britain at Waterloo, Napoleon found himself condemned to exile on Saint Helena Island in July 1815, which was controlled by Great Britain.
Between 1700 and 1789, the French population increased from 18 million to 26 million, leading to large numbers of unemployed, accompanied by sharp increases in food prices caused by years of bad harvests. Widespread social distress led to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789, the first since 1614. In June, the Estates were converted into a National Assembly, which passed a series of radical measures, among them the abolition of feudalism, state control of the Catholic Church and extending the right to vote.
This sparked the Reign of Terror, an attempt to eradicate alleged “counter-revolutionaries”; by the time it ended in July 1794, over 16,600 had been executed in Paris and the provinces. As well as external enemies, the Republic faced a series of internal Royalist and Jacobin revolts; in order to deal with these, the French Directory took power in November 1795. Despite military success, the war led to economic stagnation and internal divisions, and in November 1799 the Directory was replaced by the Consulate.
Transnational elites who shared ideas and styles were not new; what changed was their extent and the numbers involved. Under Louis XIV, the Court at Versailles was the centre of culture, fashion and political power. Improvements in education and literacy over the course of the 18th century meant larger audiences for newspapers and journals, with Masonic lodges, coffee houses and reading clubs providing areas where people could debate and discuss ideas. The emergence of this so-called “public sphere” led to Paris replacing Versailles as the cultural and intellectual centre, leaving the Court isolated and less able to influence opinion.
In addition to these social changes, the French population grew from 18 million in 1700 to 26 million in 1789, making it the most populous state in Europe; Paris had over 600,000 inhabitants, of whom roughly one third were either unemployed or had no regular work. Inefficient agricultural methods meant domestic farmers could not support these numbers, while primitive transportation networks made it hard to maintain supplies even when there was sufficient. As a result, food prices rose by 65% between 1770 and 1790, yet real wages increased by only 22%. Food shortages were particularly damaging for the regime, since many blamed price increases on government failure to prevent profiteering. By the spring of 1789, a poor harvest followed by a severe winter had created a rural peasantry with nothing to sell, and an urban proletariat whose purchasing power had collapsed.By 1789, France was the most populous country in Europe.
The other major drag on the economy was state debt. Traditional views of the French Revolution often attribute the financial crisis to the costs of the 1778–1783 Anglo-French War, but modern economic studies show this is only a partial explanation. In 1788, the ratio of debt to gross national income in France was 55.6%, compared to 181.8% in Britain, and although French borrowing costs were higher, the percentage of revenue devoted to interest payments was roughly the same in both countries. One historian concludes “neither the level of French state debt in 1788, or its previous history, can be considered an explanation for the outbreak of revolution in 1789”.
The problem was French taxes were predominantly paid by the urban and rural poor, while attempts to share the burden more equally were blocked by the regional parlements which controlled financial policy. The resulting impasse in the face of widespread economic distress led to the calling of the Estates-General, which became radicalised by the struggle for control of public finances.
Although not indifferent to the crisis, when faced with opposition Louis tended to back down. The court became the target of popular anger, especially Queen Marie-Antoinette, who was viewed as a spendthrift Austrian spy, and blamed for the dismissal of ‘progressive’ ministers like Jacques Necker. For their opponents, Enlightenment ideas on equality and democracy provided an intellectual framework for dealing with these issues, while the American Revolution was seen as confirmation of their practical application.
The Golden Gate Bridge is a large suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate Strait in America. It is located in the San Francisco Bay Area, and connects San Francisco to Marin County. Completed in 1937, it’s one of the largest bridges in America by length, with a main span of 4200 feet (1280 meters).
The bridge originally opened on May 27th, 1937 at a cost of just under $27 million. It took more than four years to build and was completed ahead of schedule and under budget. More than 200 ships pass beneath the bridge every day – making it an important maritime route from an economic standpoint as well as from a recreational point-of-view.
The cost to cross the bridge varies, depending on the distance traveled. As of 2008, the toll for a vehicle was $5 during non-peak hours, and $6.35 during peak hours.
Before we talk about the history of the Golden Gate bridge, here are the most commonly asked questions.
When did the Golden Gate Bridge collapse?
The Golden Gate bridge collapsed during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Afterward, engineers studied the bridge’s failure and concluded that it was due to high winds.
Engineers designed a new bridge adjacent to the old one with stiffer (and thus less flexible) suspension cables, more distance between these cables and roadway, more towers on the shoreline on both sides of the bridge that also served as anchors for long diagonal cable bracing, and lightening rods
Why is the Golden Gate Bridge so famous?
The Golden Gate bridge is so famous, because it stands as a symbol of San Francisco. The bridge first came to be as a project in 1919, and the first bridge to span the Golden Gate Strait opened in 1937. Construction on the bridge began in 1933 and finished four years later.
Who built the Golden Gate Bridge and why?
The Golden Gate bridge was built by Joseph B. Strauss (1870–1938), an outstanding engineer with a great deal of experience in building bridges and who had already worked on many famous bridges such as the Ohio River Bridge and the New York City Port Authority.
When was the Golden Gate Bridge finished?
The Golden Gate bridge was finished on May 27, 1937. Its construction was planned for 5 years with a cost of $35 million dollars. Its main purpose was to connect the Bay Area to the Pacific coast. It officially opened on May 27, 1937 and at that time it had been built for 14 months and was not fully completed.
Why is the Golden Gate Bridge red?
The reason why the Golden Gate bridge is red is because it was purposely painted red in the 1930s to increase safety and visibility of the structure. The name “golden” came from its yellowish-orange color when seen from a distance but this has faded over the years. The bridge is 5,791 feet long and has a main span of 1,555 feet.
How old is the Golden Gate Bridge?
The Golden Gate bridge is over 100 years old now and has been the tallest bridge in the United States since its construction. The Golden Gate Bridge is a wonderful piece of history that spans along San Francisco Bay, linking the city of San Francisco to Marin County.
What color is the Golden Gate bridge?
The color of the Golden Gate bridge is International Orange, which was chosen because it is the only color that can be seen from all around the bridge. It is also one of the colors of San Francisco’s flag.
The name Golden Gate bridge comes from the Golden Gate strait, which borders San Francisco to the north and Marin County to the south. The strait was named by Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602, who called it “El puente de las plata que con dorada cornucopia va a descubrir.” or “The bridge of gold that goes over a silver and golden horn that will find an unknown land.”
How long did it take to build the Golden Gate Bridge?
It took 14 years and 2,000 men to build the Golden Gate bridge, and it took 7.6 million pounds of steel and 18 million board feet of lumber. The construction of the bridge was made possible by a $25M grant from President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal program. It was completed in 1937 after 2,200 days of work on the bridge-building site in San Francisco Bay.
What kind of bridge is the Golden Gate Bridge?
The Golden Gate bridge is a suspension bridge that spans the Golden Gate Strait, the narrow portion of the San Francisco Bay. It was built in 1937 with funding from New Deal programs. The bridge’s main span is more than 1,200 feet long, and its total length of 2,200 feet makes it the longest suspension span in North America.
Early Construction Efforts By Railroad Companies
Earlier Efforts To Construct A Bridge Over The Golden Gate Strait Date As Far Back As The 1850’s, But Most Were Done By Railroad Companies Seeking New Paths For The Tracks To Cross Into San Francisco And Other Cities On The Peninsula. This Was Partially Due To San Francisco’s Proximity With Rail Lines Running Northeast Via Sacramento Through Emeryville And Oakland.
In 1869, a bridge was approved by the city’s Board of Supervisors, but plans were changed and a tunnel was built instead. The tunnel was built by the Central Pacific Railroad Company, but due to financial problems it could not be completed until 1880. Its length was four blocks and it ran from Baker Street in the south end to California Street in the north end of downtown San Francisco.
In 1872, a company called “The Union Bridge Company” proposed an iron railroad bridge to span the Golden Gate Strait. The proposal called for a single track rail line to cross from Oakland to San Francisco as well as construction of piers within the strait itself. However, this plan was not adopted.
The Railroad Bridge That Was Built in 1876 Was The Most Significant Bridge Built In San Francisco And The First To Be Made With Iron. It Was Made Up Of Larger Gauge Rail Tracks Which Provided For Much Longer Span And Greater Current Capacity Than The Old Wooden Docks Used In The Past. This Bridge Also Moved Between The Bays As Part Of Railroad Plans For Expansion.
In 1909, the city’s Board of Supervisors approved plans for a bridge from Marin County to San Francisco when they were presented by the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. Construction on the bridge began in 1912 and was completed in 1915. The bridge was called “The Golden Gate Bridge” and it connected Marin County to the city of San Francisco.
In 1911, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) was asked to determine whether a bridge could be built from San Francisco to Marin County. The group said that it would be impossible, but noted that a ferry ride would be less costly. In 1912, the President of The Southern Pacific Railroad Company said that a bridge over the Golden Gate Strait could only support a light railroad line and not a heavy train line connecting with Sacramento. He also stated that there was no need for such a connection in any event since the railroad already had multiple connections in Oakland and North Berkeley which were sufficient for their needs.
In 1917, the U.S. War Department requested a report from the Army Corps of Engineers on locations where a bridge could be built for their purposes. The group proposed several sites including the Golden Gate Strait as well as locations in South San Francisco and near Oakland’s shoreline. In 1922, their report noted that a bridge over the Golden Gate Strait would take ten years to construct and cost $100 million to build if it connected with existing roads in Marin County. It would also require a tunnel under Mount Tamalpais at a cost of $17 million for pedestrian use. A new highway would also need to be developed for $13 million.
Bids For The Golden Gate Bridge Project Were Submitted In 1916, But The War Department Denied The Project At That Time Due To A Lack Of Funds For Construction.
In 1916, bids were submitted to build the bridge and the lowest bid of $5.1 million was submitted by a group called “The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District“. However, the Army Corps of Engineers denied the bid since it did not have sufficient funds to finance construction of such a bridge at that time.
In 1922, the city’s Board of Supervisors approved a plan to build a bridge from Marin County to San Francisco that was estimated to cost $50 million. The bridge was then in the planning stages. In October of 1923, a group called “The Bridge District” submitted a bid for the project and it called for construction of a two-lane train bridge with tunnels beneath Mount Tamalpais at a cost of $44 million.
In 1924, The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District awarded three contracts covering the construction of approaches and viaducts on both sides of the Golden Gate Strait. The three contracts added up to $1.7 million and the work was to be completed in 1929. Also in 1924, The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District created a bond issue for $35 million in order to pay for the costs of building the bridge plus other highway-related projects that were planned along with it.
The Work Method Used To Build The Bridge Was Similar To The Construction Model Used For Many Railroad Tunnels Since It Required As Few Employees As Possible Working In Shifts And At Night. This Work Method Also Avoided Attracting Attention From Unions Who Might Interfere With The Project Due To The Lack Of Employment For Their Members.
The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District was created in 1924 by the state legislature after both Marin and San Francisco counties approved construction of a bridge over the Golden Gate Strait. This district was named “The Bridge District” and it also contained an additional board called “The Highway Division”. Both districts were merged into what is now known as the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (District 3) in 1926. The district had $35 million in bonds which was to be used to pay for various highway-related projects including construction of the Golden Gate Bridge itself.
In 1931, Bid No. 2 was approved by the District for $901,000 to build the approaches on both sides of the Golden Gate Strait. Also in 1931, Bid No. 3 was awarded for providing car ramps for automobile traffic. The contract cost was $4.5 million and this process of erecting bridges worked on both sides of the strait at this time.
In 1933, Bid No. 4 was approved by the District to provide access routes along Marin County’s coast that would cost $1.5 million to install or repair 5 miles of roadways at a cost of $13,000 per mile throughout Marin County. The purpose of this work was to provide access to the Golden Gate Bridge where there was only a trail and an old sawmill.
In 1934, A Plan Was Approved To Use Steel Girders For The Bridge Approach On A Trial Basis. This Plan Excluded The Heavy Concrete Piers And Riveted Trusses That Had Been Used In The Past Due To Their High Cost. The Steel Approach Girders Were Formed Into “Z” Shaped Frames And These Were Then Suspended From The Cable System That Supported Them With Strong Wire Strings.
A Bridge The Golden Gate Strait Is Only 3,125 Feet Long. By Construction Estimate, It Would Take Just 21 Days To Build The Structure If Every Worker Was Seen to Work At A One-Hour Limit. This Would Need To Be Done On Night Shift Duty Since When Most Of The Workers Were Not Shifting They Were Eating, Sleeping And Going To Meet With Their Friends These These Time Limits Would Have Been Too Short To Allow For That Which Was Necessary.
The Golden Gate Bridge was constructed in the years between 1933 and 1937 at a cost of $46 million, making it one of the most expensive bridges ever built at that time. In 1933, it was estimated that the project would take four years to complete and cost $6 million. Curiously, no one knew how much it would actually end up costing at the time. The construction of the bridge relied heavily on workers who were considered to be “non-union” and this caused considerable problems with organized labor in the area.
The Plan For The Bridge Redesign Was Submitted In 1932 And Approved By Retired U.S. Army Brigadier General William C. Gorgas Who Was Also Consulting With The District At That Time. His Plan Included The Construction Of A New Bridge Approach To Be Built Over A Superseded Railroad Chute Along The Coast. This Approach Was To Be Connected To The Original Route By Means Of A New Bridge That Went Above The Golden Gate Bridge.
The Contract For Building The Original Golden Gate Bridge Approach Cost $400,000 In 1931. General J.A. Day, Formerly In Charge Of Building Bridges In North Africa, Was In Charge Of Construction And He Had Subcontracted Work On This Project Because Of His Experiences There And Because Under Construction Conditions Northern California Is Similar To North Africa When It Comes To Winter Weather Conditions.
In 1932, General J.A. Day Was Made The General Manager Of The Golden Gate Bridge Construction Project And He Was Recognized As The Experienced Bridge Builder That Was Needed To Build The New Approach Over A Railroad Chute. This Project Was Known As Bid No. 4. It Had Been Approved By The Board Of Supervisors, A Special Permit Was Obtained From The U.S. Coast Guard, A Contract With Boma Steel To Purchase Steel For Building Piers And Ties As Well As Fabrication Of Building Material For This Project Was Approved By The District At An Average Cost Of $16,500 per Mile When Other Countries Were Using Steel For Bridges At A Cost Less Than One-Third That Amounts To Build Bridges There.
In 1932, Bid No. 5—the Golden Gate Bridge Approach—Was Awarded To The James R. Garfield Construction Company For $1 Million. This New Route Was To Be Located On The Southern Side Of The Golden Gate Strait From A Point About 2 Miles South Of Sausalito And Extend About 7 Miles To A Point About 3 Miles North Of San Francisco. The Trail That Existed Along That Path Was Replaced With Steel Stringers Connected By Concrete Piers Every 200 Feet And Tied Together With Strings That Were Suspended From Towers That Were Located At 300-Foot Intervals.
In 1933, Bid No. 6—Building The Approach On The Marin County Coastline—Was Awarded To The San Francisco-North Pacific Company For $1.5 Million. This Route Started From Fort Baker Below Sausalito And Went Over The Coast To A Point 2 Miles North Of Fort Barry. Work On This Project Began In June 1933.
The District Board Approved Bid No. 7—Building Approach Piers—In 1933 Which Cost $2 Million. Work Started On June 20, 1933 And Was Completed By August 1934 With General J.A Day’s Company Receiving A Bonus Of One-Hundred Thousand Dollars For Its Efficient Workmanship During Construction And Completion Of This Project.
On February 13, 1934, Bid No. 8 (part of Bid No. 4) Was Approved For $3.5 Million To Construct the Golden Gate Bridge Approach By The James R. Garfield Company And Work Began On March 1, 1934. This Work Was Completed In July 1935 When Contractor General J.A. Day Received A Bonus Of $1 Million Plus A Bonus For The Speed With Which Work Was Completed, $25,000—One-Half To General J.A. Day And The Other-Half To His Company.
In 1934, Bid No. 9—The Approach Piers—Was Approved By The District Board At An Estimated Cost Of $1.5 Million, While A Supplemental Contract Was Contracted For $500,000 For Construction Of Additional Work Necessary To Complete This Project As Estimated By District Engineer William E. Winters Upon Which Work Began In July 1934 When All Work On This Project Had Been Completed Except The Stringers Between Fort Baker And Fort Barry, These Were Never Completed Due To Severe Weather Conditions That caused Losses During Construction.
In 1935, Bid No. 10—The Approach Piers—Was Approved By The District Board And The James R. Garfield Construction Company Was Awarded A Contract For $1 Million. Work Began In August 1935 On This Project, Which Consisted Of Laying Concrete Piers And Constructing Ties Between Them On The Coastline Approach, Between Fort Baker And Fort Barry. When This Project Was Completed In May 1936, General J.A Day Received A Bonus Of One-Hundred Seventy-Five Thousand Dollars For His Company’s Efficiency In Construction Workmanship During This Period.
In 1936, Bid No. 11—Replacement Of The Cables—Was Approved By The District Board At A Cost Of $1.5 Million And Work Began June 20, 1936.
In 1937, Bid No. 12—The Replacement Of The Cables– Was Approved By The District Board At An Estimated Cost Of $1 Million And There Was A Supplemental Contract For $250,000 For Construction Necessary To Complete This Project As Estimated Upon Which Work Began January 1, 1937. When This Project Was Completed In May 1937, General J.A. Day Received A Bonus Of One-Hundred And Twenty-five Thousand Dollars For His Company’s Efficiency In Construction Workmanship During This Period.
In 1938, Bid No. 13—The Replacement Of The Cables—Was Approved By The District Board At An Estimated Cost Of $3.5 Million And Work Began March 15, 1938.
In 1939, Bid No. 14—The Replacement of the Cables was Approved By The District Board At An Estimated Cost Of $4 Million and Work Began May 27, 1939.
In 1940, Bid No. 15—The Replacement of the Cables was Approved By The District Board At An Estimated Cost Of $5.5 Million and Work Began October 8, 1940.
In 1941, Bid No. 16—The Replacement of the Cables was Approved By the District Board At An Estimated Cost Of $6 Million And Work Began January 10, 1942.
In 1942, Bid No. 17—The Replacement of the Cables was Approved By The District Board at An Estimated Cost Of $7 Million And Work Began July 16, 1942. This Project Was Part Of Their Contract For Building The Bridge’s Steel Superstructure (Bid No. 18).
In 1943, Bid No. 18—The Replacement of the Cables was Approved By The District Board at An Estimated Cost Of $8 Million And Work Began January 10, 1943. This Project Was Part Of Their Contract For Building The Steel Superstructure (Bid No. 19).
In 1944, Bid No. 19—The Replacement of the Cables was Approved By The District Board at An Estimated Cost Of $10 Million And Work Began July 10, 1944. This Project Was Part Of Their Contract For Building The Steel Superstructure (Bid No. 20).
In 1945, Bid No. 20—The Replacement of the Cables was Approved By The District Board at An Estimated Cost Of $11 Million And Work Began May 4, 1945. This Project Was Part Of Their Contract For Building The Steel Superstructure (Bid No. 21).
In 1946, Bid No. 21—The Replacement of the Cables was Approved By The District Board at An Estimated Cost Of $12 Million And Work Began March 20, 1946. This Project Was Part Of Their Contract For Building The Steel Superstructure (Bid No. 22).
In 1947, Bid No. 22—The Replacement of the Cables was Approved By The District Board at An Estimated Cost Of $13 Million And Work Began January 12, 1947. This Project Was Part Of Their Contract For Building The Steel Superstructure (Bid No. 23).
In 1948, Bid No. 23—The Replacement of the Cables was Approved By The District Board at An Estimated Cost Of $14 Million And Work Began January 10, 1948. This Project Was Part Of Their Contract For Building The Steel Superstructure (Bid No. 24).
After completion of this project, the Golden Gate Bridge’s main cable system is now stronger than ever before with a life expectancy of many years to come.
The region of Hong Kong has been inhabited since the Old Stone Age, later becoming part of the Chinese empire with its loose incorporation into the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC). Starting out as a farming fishing village and salt production site, it became an important free port and eventually a major international financial centre.
The Qing dynasty ceded Hong Kong to the British Empire in 1842 through the treaty of Nanjing, ending the First Opium War. Hong Kong then became a British crown colony. Britain also won the Second Opium War, forcing the Qing Empire to cede Kowloon in 1860, while leasing the New Territories for 99 years from 1898.
Japan occupied Hong Kong from 1941 to 1945 during the Second World War. By the end of the war in 1945, Hong Kong had been liberated by joint British and Chinese troops and returned to British rule. Hong Kong greatly increased its population from refugees from Mainland China, particularly during the Korea War and the Great Leap Forward. In the 1950s, Hong Kong transformed from a territory of entrepôt trade to one of industry and manufacturing. The Chinese economic reform prompted manufacturers to relocate to China, leading Hong Kong to develop its commercial and financial industry.
In 1984, the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration, which incited a wave of emigration from Hong Kong. The Handover of Hong Kong on July 1, 1997, returned Hong Kong to Chinese rule, and it adopted the Hong Kong Basic Law.
In the 21st century, Hong Kong has continued to enjoy success as a financial center. However, civil unrest, dissatisfaction with the government and Chinese influence, in general, has been a central issue. The planned implementation of Hong Kong Basic Law Article 23 caused great controversy and a massive demonstration on 1 July 2003, causing the bill to be shelved. Citizens expressed displeasure at their electoral system, culminating in the 2014 Hong Kong protests. In 2019 the proposed Hong Kong extradition bill was seen as another step taken by the Chinese Communist Party to undermine the law and human rights in Hong Kong, instigating multiple protests.
There are three principal eras of the History of Japan – the Jōmon period, Yayoi period, and Kofun period.
The Jōmon Period is also sometimes called the “Stone Age” in English. This may be variously dated from 14500 BCE to 300 BCE The Yayoi Period is also sometimes known as ”The Late Stone Age”. This may be variously dated from 300 BCE to CE 300. The Kofun Period is also sometimes known as “ancient times” or “old age” in English. This may be variously dated from CE 300 to CE 660.
The Yayoi Period is an era of Japanese history that corresponds roughly to the late phase of the Jōmon period (about 300 BCE to CE 300) and lasted into the early Kofun period (about 300 to 600 CE), although there is some overlap with preceding and following periods. Colloquially, it can refer to both the final part of the Jōmon period and the whole of the subsequent Kofun period, i.e., from about 400 BCE until about CE 650 or 700.
Yayoi culture flourished in a number of sites spread generally from inland Kyushu to the Inland Sea. Archaeological evidence attests to a growing population and increasing social complexity during this period. Ritual burial practices, which first appeared late in the Jōmon period, reached their peak during the Yayoi. Yayoi farmers practiced primitive forms of agriculture with simple tools made of stone or metal.
The Yayoi Period is thought to have lasted for about 300 years, during which time massive emigration took place into Japan across the Tsushima Strait. Although archaeological evidence indicates that emigration from mainland Asia to Japan was a massive undertaking, it is difficult to know how many people actually crossed the sea or when the movement started. The earliest settlements include Haniwa, Ganja and Jar-gu.
During the Yayoi period, Chinese writing arrived in Japan and by AD 300 it had greatly influenced the writing of Japanese. By this time, Classical Chinese had become widely used in literature and can be seen in stone lanterns, tea cups and tea bowls that have been excavated from burial sites. This is also when used in architecture such as temples and pagodas were constructed using wood with painted stucco surfaces, curved eaves with roof tiles and balconies were added to dwellings.
The Heijō period (AD 300–710) is also called the Yamatotakeru period because its capital was at Yamatotakeru-shima (modern-day Ōsaki, Settsu). However, modern usage calls it the “Heian” or “Yamato” period to distinguish it from the preceding Kofun period. The capital moved from Yamato to Nara in central Honshū. An important change to Japanese society during Heian was the introduction of Buddhism from Central Asia by Kukai in 724. He established the Japanese Tendai sect and attempted to reconcile the different schools of Buddhism.
The late 8th and early 9th centuries marked the zenith of the power of the Fujiwara clan, which was collectively known as “the nine regents”. The Fujiwara presided over a period of cultural unity known as the . During this period, the capital was adorned with many fine palaces, temples, gardens and sculptures.
Feudal domains governed as military-civilian units called “han” emerged in or around AD 500. By 740 it had evolved into a system that exerted control over large areas of Japan; it survived until 1868. In this system, the hereditary ruler of a territory, the “daimyō”, was a vassal of the “shōgun”, who was in turn a vassal of the “emperor”. The Emperor’s power was also limited by the existence of competing regional lords. In this connection it is significant that on more than one occasion, there were occasions when a child was named as heir but had no parental right to succeed.
Japan’s traditional historical era began in AD 538 on the accession of Emperor Jinmu. This marked the beginning of the Asuka period (538–710), which lasted until 710, when the capital was moved to Heian-kyō (today’s Kyoto), then renamed “Heijō-kyō”. The Emperor Tenji, who moved the capital to Nara, is said to have built the first palace in Heian-kyō.
The period can be divided into early, middle, and late periods.
The middle period (AD 600–800) is sometimes called the “Kana Period” or “Wara Period”. The “Wara” or Japanese “Warrior” monks helped spread Buddhism outside Japan. They often served as Buddhist missionaries in China and Korea.
The Kamakura Period (1185–1333) is sometimes called the “Genroku Era”. It started with the ascension of Minamoto no Yoritomo to the position of “shōgun” in 1192, who established himself as ruler of Japan. This period can be divided into early, middle, and late periods.
The Muromachi Period (1336–1573) is sometimes called the “Sengoku-jūnen-jōn-gū” or “Warring States Period”. It was characterized by struggles between rival samurai clans. Notable battles included those of Odawara, Komaki and Nagakute.
The Tokugawa Period (1603–1868) is sometimes called the “Seiden-shō” or “Edo Period”. It was characterized by strict social order, with emphasis on adulthood and age, which minimized conflict among generations. The feudal system provided certain economic advantages to the government, but at the same time kept political and social power in the hands of a small number of families (daimyō) and clans (samurai). This system lasted for 250 years.
Japanese castles fall into three categories: hilltop castles; river castles; and coastal castles. During the Sengoku period (1467–1603), many battles were fought between clans. Castle towns later grew around castles, and daimyo domains became centers of administration for areas that covered large parts of modern-day prefectures.
Japanese architecture has historically been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to be altered according to the occasion. People usually sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, traditionally; chairs and high tables were not widely used until the 20th century.
The first Japanese photographic patent dates to 1853, but the technology was not entirely accepted until the invention of cameras with lenses in the late 1880s. During this time, many photographers moved toward single-lens reflex cameras, which were eventually mass-produced.
The first Japanese movable type printing press was set up by an Englishman named Sharp in 1809 at Hirado, on an island off Nagasaki. He established a small bookshop printing press, which soon became the only medium for printing books and newspapers throughout Japan for almost 100 years. The first Japanese photographer to be awarded a Nobel Prize was Substantially for his photographs of streets and buildings of Tokyo.
Japanese business practices were heavily influenced by the Chinese system of economics and trade, which Japan had long emulated, and to a lesser extent by Western practices. Large companies traded stocks on the Tokyo and Osaka stock exchanges; however, until the 1980s, the Bank of Japan restricted foreign ownership of domestic stocks.
During World War I, Japan sold three German warships to Britain, receiving an urgently needed infusion of hard currency in return. The Allies’ 1914–1915 naval blockade cut off supplies of raw materials for Japanese industry. Trade was diverted to America; many younger people wanted to stay in America or move there. After 1919, Japanese exports soared as high productivity methods were adopted in their factories.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 is considered to be the beginning of Japanese militarism. Japanese militarism in the 1930s was focused on the acquisition of oil (needed for munitions production), and on securing areas with potential resources (including Manchuria with its rich iron ore deposits). The Kwantung Army was created to defend Manchukuo.
The Mukden Incident, involving the Japanese “Mukden incident”, began on September 18, 1931 when a small group of Chinese soldiers holding a position at a railroad station in Chinchou were attacked by a much larger force from the Kwantung army, resulting in all but one being killed or wounded. The following day, Japan invaded Manchuria.
On November 20, 1940, Tokyo’s foreign ministry sent a message to the French embassy in Tokyo requesting the French government “assist” in ending the war with China. The request was declined. On December 1, the same message was sent to the US via its embassy in Tokyo. It read: “The Japanese government has decided to make a suggestion to the United States Government for terminating the war between Japan and China by accepting the suggestion of President Roosevelt if it can be done on reasonable terms.” The United States responded that it would do so provided all hostilities against countries who are neutral are terminated. On December 2, Japan attacked Hong Kong.
The United States and Britain were alarmed by the expansion of Japanese forces in South East Asia and the Pacific. In 1940, officials from the United States, Britain and other Allied nations released statements denouncing Japan’s further militarization.
On December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan), Japan attacked Pearl Harbor without a declaration of war, bringing the United States into World War II. The Sino-Japanese War—which had begun in 1937 between China and Japan—soon escalated into a much larger conflict called the Second Sino-Japanese War. The period after 1937 was marked by increasing aggression from Japan in China. This culminated in a full scale invasion that resulted in the capture of China’s capital city, Nanjing (Nanking).
In 1939, Japan signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact with the Soviet Union to assure a neutrality agreement between Japan and Russia. In 1941, Japan signed a military alliance with Germany and Italy, forming what was known as the Rome–Tokyo Axis. The purpose of this pact was to deter the US from interfering with Japanese military operations in Asia. Japan also expanded its influence southward by occupying northern French Indochina.
On September 27, 1940, Imperial Japanese Army forces invaded French Indochina and fought the French colonial army in the Battle of Saigon. The Japanese victory ended sixty years of French rule in Indochina.
The subsequent border skirmishes of June 1940 with the Soviet Union at Lake Khasan, at the Manchurian border, and at Changkufeng/Khasan in June–October 1941 are judged to have been acts of self-defense on Japan’s part. The findings of the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact were contradicted by the Soviet invasion of Manchukuo in August 1945.
Japan destroyed much of the natural environment through deforestation and industrial development. Various campaigns to preserve Japan’s artistic heritage were also waged in this period. During this time, Japanese art studied Western styles and was transformed into a modern form.
Here is a wonderful video about the American Revolution.
The American Revolution was a pioneer revolt which happened somewhere in the range of 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies crushed the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) with the help of France, winning freedom from Great Britain and building up the United States of America.
The American colonials imparted “no taxation rate with no political increase” starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. They dismissed the grip of the British Parliament to review them thinking about that they had no administrators in that coordinating edge. Questions dependably expanded to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the eating up of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, trailed by method for the Boston Tea Party in December 1773.
The British talked back by means of last Boston Harbor and setting up a movement of prison laws which accurately disavowed Massachusetts Bay Colony’s endowments of self-government. Different domains arranged in the back of Massachusetts, and a get-altogether of American Patriot pioneers establishment their own one in everything about sort meeting in past due 1774 at the Continental Congress to kind out their obstruction of Britain; various voyagers held their self control to the Crown and had been alluded to as Loyalists or Tories.
Loads discharged out into fighting among Patriot volunteer equipped power and British regulars when King George’s redcoats endeavored to crush Colonial armed force supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The question by methods for then molded into struggle, all through which the Patriots (and later their French associates) battle the British and Loyalists in what wound up called the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).
The majority of the thirteen states shaped a Provincial Congress which expressed quality from the past pioneer governments, secured Loyalism, and chose a Continental Army pushed by General George Washington. The Continental Congress explained King George a despot who ventured the wayfarers’ rights as Englishmen, and that they proposed the settlements detached and unprejudiced states on July 2, 1776. The Patriot business endeavor kept up the political procedures for contemplating progressivism and republicanism to oust government and respectability, and they imparted that all men are made similar.
The Continental Army obliged the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, at any rate that pre-summer season the British were given New York City and its key harbor, which they held for the term of the contention. The Royal Navy expelled ports and got explicit urban zones for brief spans, yet they neglect to crush Washington’s powers.
The Patriots endeavored to assault Canada for the term of the frigidity of 1775–seventy six without headway, yet they were given a British prepared power at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France entered the battle as a partner of the US with a goliath outfitted vitality and oceanic power. The fighting through then driven nearer toward the Southern states, where Charles Cornwallis were given a military at Charleston, South Carolina in mid 1780, other than he neglect to choose adequate volunteers from Loyalist typical locals to simply acknowledge viable responsibility for the region.
At last, a joined American and French quality got a next British outfitted power at Yorktown inside the fall of 1781, effectively finishing the fight. The Treaty of Paris was checked September 3, 1783, officially finishing the contention and stating the fresh out of the box new country’s performed detachment from the British Empire. The United States affirmed basically all the area east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British saving control of Canada, and Spain taking Florida.